Professor Abraham A. A. Osinubi, MB,BS, M.Sc., Ph.D., FACE, FASN
Professor Abraham Osinubi is a Medical Doctor with 30 years of medical practice; 17 years in the teaching of Anatomy in the University of Lagos; a Stereologist; a Reproductive, Endocrine, Clinical and Experimental Anatomist; and an expert on Teaching Innovations, especially in the design and use of Student-centred Learning. He is a fellow of the American College of Endocrinology, and currently the Vice-President of the Endocrine and Metabolism Society of Nigeria.   Abraham Osinubi had his first degree (MB,BS) from University of Ibadan (1987); M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Anatomy from University of Lagos (2000, 2006). Dr. Osinubi was appointed Associate Professor of Anatomy by the Lagos State University (LASU) in 2008 and was Head of Department of Anatomy, Lagos State University College of Medicine (LASUCOM) from 2008 to 2009.  He was appointed Associate Professor of Anatomy by the University of Lagos in 2010 and was Head of Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine of the University of Lagos from 2010 to 2012. He was the Sub-Dean of the Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine of the University of Lagos from 2012 to 2014. Abraham Osinubi was appointed Professor of Anatomy by the University of Lagos in 2015. He is external examiner to several universities, including University of Ghana and Kwa-Zulu-Natal University.   Prof. Abraham A. A. Osinubi has successfully supervised twelve (12) doctorate theses and numerous M.Sc. projects and dissertations. He is the foundation Editor-in-Chief of the University of Lagos Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. He was awarded Fellow of the American College of Endocrinology (FACE) by the American College of Endocrinology (ACE) in December, 2009; the convocation of which took place in April, 2010 in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The Anatomical Society of Nigeria conferred on him the highest honour of the Society- FASN (Fellow of the Anatomical Society of Nigeria) on 23rd September, 2016 at the 13th AGM and Scientific Conference at the Ekiti State University.   Prof. Osinubi has authored over 100 scientific publications in learnt journals and two textbooks of Anatomy. He co-authored the first National Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Management in Nigeria in 2012. ResearchGate acknowledged him as one of the most cited authors in his field in December 2015.    
RESEARCH INTERESTS  
  1. Reproductive and Endocrine Anatomy
  2. Testicular and Renal Toxicology and Stereology
  3. Curriculum Development and Teaching Innovations
CURRENT RESEARCH
1.      Investigation of the safety of commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agents in pregnancy. 2.      Roles of glutathione and d-ribose-l-cysteine in health and diseases. 3.      Investigation of the anti-diabetic and fertility potential of some herbs. 4.      Studies on the use of student-centred learning in the Medical and Dental curricula.

SPECIAL SKILLS

1.      Stereology. 2.      Testicular Toxicology 3.      Experimental Biology 4.      Mentorship (has successfully produced 12 (twelve) Ph.D. candidates) 5.      Teaching Innovations. 6.      E-Learning 7.      Problem-Based Learning. 8.      Case-Based Learning.

FELLOWSHIPS
  1.      Awarded Fellow of the American College of Endocrinology (FACE) by the American College of Endocrinology (ACE) in December, 2009. Convocation was held on Saturday 24th April, 2010 at the Sheraton Boston Hotel, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 2.      The Anatomical Society of Nigeria conferred on him the highest honour of the Society- FASN (Fellow of the Anatomical Society of Nigeria) on 23rd September, 2016 at the 13th AGM and Scientific Conference at the Ekiti State University.    

GRANT AWARD
  • Funding Agency: University of Lagos
  • Title of Project: Determination of safety of some commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agents in pregnant diabetic rats  (6th November, 2014)
  SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTIONS OF SOME OF THE PUBLICATIONS TO KNOWLEDGE  
  1. In year 2002, we described for the very first time the PCV (packed cell volume) pattern of Sprague-Dawley rat in this environment. This work has far-reaching implications in that it demonstrated that PCV levels may need to be interpreted with reference to the time of sample collections.
  2. In 2003, we showed clearly the relationship between testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone and seminal parameters in Nigerian males. We also provided our local critical reference values of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone necessary for the maintenance of normal sperm motility and concentration.
  3. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to scientifically show that Vernonia amygdalina and Tapinanthus butungii are potential anti-diabetic agents.
  4. My team described the circadian rhythm of blood glucose in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in Lagos in 2003.
  5. From review of literatures available, we were also the first to clearly demonstrate that serum levels of prostate-specific antigen correlate positively with serum levels of inhibin B and negatively with sperm count in Nigerian males.
  6. Our work on the effects of quinine (QU) on the testis of rats and rabbits has the potential of developing a non-invasive, non-steroidal and an acceptable male contraceptive. This work is currently the most extensive study conducted by a single laboratory on the effects of QU on the cytoarchitecture and morphometry of the testes. In addition, this study has provided quantitative evidence that QU-induced testicular toxicity is largely preventable by testosterone, ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol.
  7. Our study has shown that quinine-induced testicular toxicity is an excellent animal model for the study of fertility, infertility and the process of spermatogenesis. This model has been cited by several other investigators.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE A MODEL FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF TESTICULAR TOXICOLOGY- THE QUININE-TESTIS MODEL  
Adult (6-8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 160 and 180 g were used for the experiments. The animals were randomly divided into 19 groups. The rats were acutely and chronically treated with quinine (QU). Recovery from the toxic effects of QU was assessed for 12 weeks after the administration of QU was discontinued. The modulating effects of testosterone (TT), ascorbic acid (AA) and alpha tocopherol (AT) were also assessed. The animals were variously sacrificed between week 1 and 20.  Sperm motility and concentration were estimated in the epididymal fluid, in accordance with the World Health Organization standards. Testicular tissues were processed for histological examination under light microscopy. Stereological parameters estimated included: diameter and cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubules; volume density and absolute volume of the seminiferous epithelium, testicular interstitium and seminiferous tubular lumen; number of profiles per unit area and numerical density of seminiferous tubules. Serum TT, in addition to testicular TT, malondialdehyde (MDA) and AA concentrations were estimated.       
Results showed marked degeneration of the seminiferous tubules following short-term administration of QU at a daily dose of 30 mg/kg body weight for 7 days. In addition, there was destruction of the seminiferous epithelium and testicular interstitium of rats treated chronically with 10 mg/kg/day of QU. There was a continuous decrease in: mean testicular volume; diameter and cross-sectional area of seminiferous tubules; volume density and absolute volume of the seminiferous epithelium; and absolute volume of testicular interstitium of rats administered QU only for 8 weeks. These parameters still remained at approximately the same levels 12 weeks after cessation of QU administration, with no evidence of substantial recovery.                            
There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in both the sperm count (25.0 ± 2.5 v 156.0 ± 6.9 x106/mL) and motility (5.0 ± 1.5 v 99.0 ± 1.0%) of the rats treated with QU  only when compared with the values obtained for the negative control rats. The mean sperm count and motility of the rats that had QU plus TT and QU plus AA, were within normal range. Both serum and testicular concentrations of TT were significantly (p < 0.001) reduced in rats administered QU only when compared with the rats treated with distilled water. Co-treatment of QU with TT, AA or AT significantly (p < 0.001) prevented a reduction in both serum and testicular levels of TT. There was a significant (p < 0.001) elevation of MDA levels in the supernatants of testicular homogenates of rats treated with QU only and QU plus AT compared with those of the distilled water-treated control group and those treated with either a combination of QU and AA or QU and TT.
This study provides an excellent animal model for the study of fertility, infertility and the process of spermatogenesis. This model has been cited by several other investigators.  

SOME OF THE PUBLICATIONS ON THE QUININE-TESTIS MODEL OF TESTICULAR TOXICOLOGY
 
1.      Osinubi AA, Akinlua JT, Agbaje MA, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO. Effects of short-term administration of quinine on the seminiferous tubules of Sprague-Dawley rats. Nig J Health Biomed Sci. 2004;3(1):1-7. 2.      Osinubi AA, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO. Reversal of quinine-induced testicular toxicity by testosterone in rat. Nig Qt J Hosp. 2004;14(2):121-125. 3.      Osinubi AA, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO. Effects of quinine and ascorbic acid on testicular malondialdehyde and sperm quality in the rat. J Clin Sci. 2004;4:1-6. 4.      Osinubi AA, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO. Attenuation of quinine-induced testicular toxicity by ascorbic acid in rat: A stereological approach. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2005;34:213-219. 5.      Osinubi AA, Ajala MO, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO. Quinine lowers serum and testicular testosterone in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Afr J Med Med Sc. 2006;35:425-430. 6.      Osinubi AA, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO. Cytoarchitectural and morphometric changes in the testis induced by quinine administration in rabbits. West Afr J Anat. (Ghana) 2005;8:73-80. 7.      Osinubi AA, Noronha CC, Akosile SK, Okanlawon AO. Histomorphometric and seminal analyses: Testosterone prevents quinine-induced testicular toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. West Afr. J. Anat. (Ghana) 2005;8:109-116. 8.      Osinubi AA, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO. Morphometric and stereological assessment of the effects of long-term administration of quinine on the morphology of rat testis. West Afr J Med. (Ghana) 2005;24(3):200-205. 9.      Osinubi AA, Daramola AO, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO, Ashiru OA. The effect of quinine and ascorbic acid on rat testes. West Afr J Med. (Ghana) 2007;26(3):217-221.    

SOME PRESENTATIONS OF THE QUININE-TESTIS MODEL   1.      Cytoarchitectural and morphometric changes in the testis induced by short and long-term administration of quinine in rabbits. Osinubi AA, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO. Conference: 10th International Conference of Anatomical Society of West Africa in Accra, Ghana (May, 2003). 2.      Attenuation of quinine-induced testicular toxicity by ascorbic acid in rat: A stereological approach. Osinubi AA, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO. Conference: 2004 International Conference of Endocrinology, Lisbon, Portugal    (September, 2004). 3.      The effects of quinine and ascorbic acid on rat testicles. Osinubi AA, Daramola AO, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO, Ashiru OA. Conference: The 2005 University of Lagos Annual Research Conference and Fair (October, 2005). 4.      Introduction to stereology and andrological techniques. Osinubi AA. Conference: 1st Conjoint International Conference on Fertility, Anatomy and Morphological Sciences, Lagos, Nigeria (September, 2007). 5.      Quinine - A male contraceptive? Osinubi AA, Noronha CC, Daramola AO, Ajala MO, Okanlawon OA, Ashiru OA. Conference: 1st Conjoint International Conference on Fertility, Anatomy and Morphological Sciences, Lagos, Nigeria (September, 2007). 6.      Cytoarchitectural and morphometric alterations of testes of Sprague-Dawley rats secondary to quinine. Osinubi AA, Daramola AO, Ajala MO, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO. Conference: 18th Annual Meeting & Clinical Congress of American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists in Houston, Texas, USA (May, 2009). 7.      Effects of quinine on spermatogonia, spermacyte, Sertoli cell and Leydig cell counts. Osinubi AA. Course: The 2012 Bangalore Microscopy Course, Bangalore, India (September, 2012). 8.      The Rat Quinine Model as a Template for the Investigation of Testicular Toxicology  Osinubi AAA (April 7, 2016) Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, Kwa- Zulu-Natal University, South Africa.    

GRANTS AWARDED FOR THE PRESENTATION OF THE QUININE MODEL
 
1.      Travel Grant awarded by The International Society of Endocrinology (ISE) to present the     paper, “Attenuation of Quinine-induced Testicular Toxicity by Ascorbic acid in rat: A Stereological Approach” at the 12th International Congress of Endocrinology (ICE) in Lisbon, Portugal (31st August – 4th September, 2004). 2.      Travel grant awarded by American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) to present the paper, “Cytoarchitectural and Morphometric Alterations of Testes of Sprague-Dawley Rats Secondary to Quinine” at the AACE 18th Annual Meeting & Clinical Congress, Houston, Texas (13th – 17th May, 2009).  

SELECTED CITATIONS OF THE QUININE MODEL
 
1.      Mohammad-Ghasemi F. et al. A morphologic and morphometric study of adult mouse testis following different doses of busulfan administration.  Medical Journal of Reproduction & Infertility. 2006; 7(1).  2.      Adekunle AS et al. Antispermatogenic effects of artemether: An animal model. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 2009; 91(3):511-519. 3.      Olufemi MA et al. Effects of Short Term Administration of Artemether–Lumefantrine on Testicular Functions and Antioxidant Defence in the Rat. Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences.2009; 4(2):165-170. 4.      Tijani AS et al. Acute administration of co-artesiane® induces oxidative stress in the testes of adult male Wistar rats. Biosci. Res. Commun. 2010; 22(5):259-265. 5.      Nikravesh MR et al. Effects of crude Onion extract on murine testis. Journal of Reproduction and Infertility. 2010; 10(4). 6.      Olayemi FO. Review on some causes of male infertility. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010; 9(20). 7.      Obi E et al. Testicular toxicity of B-success herbal supplement in male albino rats. International Research of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2011; 1(8): 221-227.  ISSN 2251-0176. 8.      Yama OE et al. Histomorphological Alterations in the Prostate Gland and Epithelium of Seminiferous Tubule of Sprague-Dawley Rats Treated with Methanolic Extract of Momordica charantia Seeds. Iran J Med Sci. 2011; 36(4):266-272. 9.      Mehraein F, Negahdar F. Morphometric evaluation of seminiferous tubules in aged mice testes after melatonin administration. Cell J. 2011. 10.  Yama OE, Duru FI. Temporal adaptation in the testes of rat administered single dose Momordica charantia for three interrupted spermatogenic cycles: Cytometric quantification. Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 2011;16(3):194-199. 11.  Farombi EO et al. Quercetin protects against testicular toxicity induced by chronic administration of therapeutic dose of quinine sulfate in rats. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. 2012; 23(1):39–44, ISSN (Online) 2191-0286, ISSN (Print) 0792-6855,DOI: 10.1515/jbcpp-2011-0029. 12.  Azu OO. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and Testicular Morphology: Current Status and a Case for a Stereologic Approach. J Androl. 2012;33:1130-1142. 13.  Amini M et al. Effects of Kerack used in addict Iranian people on fertility of adult mice. Tehran University of Medical Sciences. 2013; 71(5). 14.  Al-Ajmi N et al. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulates the differential expression of survivin splice variants and protects spermatogenesis during testicular torsion. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013; 17(4):259-265.  15.  Olabanji OJ, Akang E, Yama OE, Kusemiju TO, Oremosu AA, Osinubi AA. Mucuna pruriens protects the testes from quinine-induced testicular toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Nig Qt J Hosp Med. 2013; 23(3):221-226. 16.  Ataman JE, Osinubi AAA. Acute toxicity and effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv.) on quinine-induced testicular damage in Wistar rats. Nig J Biomed Engr. 2013; 11(1):20-26. 17.  Ataman JE, Baxter-Grillo D, Osinubi AAA. Assessment of the effects of parenteral Quinine on Testicular Histology and Sperm parameters in Wistar rats. Journal of Biomedical Sciences. 2014;13(2):72-81. 18.  Mahmoud OM et al. Role of Ginseng on mercury chloride-induced testicular lesions in adult albino rat: a histological and immunohistochemical study. The Egyptian Journal of Histology. 2014; 37(3):506-513. 19.  Amini M et al. Correlation between expression of CatSper family and sperm profiles in the adult mouse testis following Iranian Kerack abuse. Andrology. 2014; 2(3):386-393. 20.  Alghazal SMA et al., Cytotoxic effect of Quinidine on testicular tissues, sperm parameters and Ca2+ level in mice sperms; as an option of male contraception. Advances in Life Science and Technology. 2015; (30) ISSN 2224-7181 (Paper) ISSN 2225-062X (Online). 21.  Moustafa MNK et al. Morphological and Morphometric Study of the Development of Seminiferous Epithelium of Donkey (Equus asinus) from Birth to Maturity. J Cytol Histol. 2015; 6:370. doi:10.4172/2157-7099.1000370 22.  Akingbade AM. Histomorphometric and Spermatogenic Evaluation of Musk Based-Incense Induced Testisculotoxicity in Adult Albino Rats. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences (SJAMS), 2015; 3(5E):2111-2117. ISSN 2320-6691. 23.  Izaguirry AP et al. Effect of quinine-loaded polysorbate-coated nanocapsules on male and female reproductive systems of rats. Toxicol Res. 2016; 5:1561-1572. DOI: 10.1039/C6TX00203J.